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Theodore Baker
Theodore Baker

Aluminum, Copper, Zinc Usage From Solar Energy ... [2021]


The expansion of concentrated solar power increases demand for chromium, copper, manganese and nickel. Between 2020 and 2040 in the SDS, chromium demand from CSP grows by 75 times (to 91 kt), copper demand grows by 68 times (to 42 kt), manganese demand grows 92-fold (to 105 kt), and nickel demand grows 89-fold (to 35 kt).




Aluminum, copper, zinc usage from solar energy ...



This report considers a wide range of minerals and metals used in clean energy technologies, including chromium, copper, major battery metals (lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese and graphite), molybdenum, platinum group metals, zinc, rare earth elements and others (see Annex A for the complete list). Steel and aluminium are not included in the scope for demand assessment, but aluminium use in electricity networks is exceptionally assessed given that the outlook for copper is closely linked with aluminium use in grid lines (see Introduction).


According to a new report from Wood Mackenzie, a Verisk business (Nasdaq:VRSK), solar power will have a significant impact on demand for aluminium, copper, and zinc, with the usage of all three metals in the sector set to double by 2040. However, as governments fulfil their commitments to limit global warming to 2 C and beyond, the need for solar power will become greater and demand for several base metals is expected to surge.


A typical electric vehicle battery pack, for example, needs around 8 kilograms (18 pounds) of lithium, 35 kilograms of nickel, 20 kilograms of manganese and 14 kilograms of cobalt, while charging stations require substantial amounts of copper. For green power, solar panels use large quantities of copper, silicon, silver and zinc, while wind turbines require iron ore, copper, and aluminum.


Some people may mistake solar technology as magic, sorcery, or from another planet, but solar panels and solar batteries are just made up of minerals found right here on earth. As one of the most prominent forms of energy being developed to reduce global carbon emissions, the increased popularity of clean energy has created a high demand for all of the raw materials used to create solar panels, batteries, and other renewable energy system components.


While solar panels use the nearly infinite power of the sun to create renewable energy, a variety of non-renewable minerals that are mined from the earth make up the physical components of these green power systems. In the 2020s, most solar panels contain a combination of the following minerals:


About 80% of the world's silver is produced as a byproduct of other minerals such as gold, lead, zinc, copper, and uranium. The remaining percentage comes from mining activities using open-pit methods in which heavy machinery reaches mineral deposits near the earth's surface.


Solar energy runs on metal. Copper, silver, zinc, aluminum, and (of course) steel help harness solar rays, turning them into electric current. This synergistic relationship has created a dynamic partnership between solar suppliers and metal fabrication companies.


The primary metals used in a solar panel include aluminum, steel, copper, silver, and zinc. Aluminum or steel often composes the racks and support system. Sometimes, aluminum supplies the wiring as well. Copper may make up the wiring of the solar array. Silver is an excellent conductor. And zinc oxide improves solar-cell efficiency. Many minor metals are also used in solar cell production.


Some solar manufacturers rely on copper, nickel, and zinc to help form their cells, mounts, arrays, or pumps. When refined, these metals produce a range of so-called rare metals, including silicon, indium, gallium, selenium, cadmium, and tellurium. Rare metals also play a part in creating solar cells. For example, silicon cells require cadmium, tellurium, and gallium to help transform raw silicon into an effective energy conductor.


Metals often get used at different stages in the solar panel production process. Metal stamping and extrusions are two processes that use metal materials like aluminum, copper, or steel as inputs. These processes often require large quantities of metal products and are essential in the construction of high-quality solar panels.


While zinc is primarily used in wind energy, it does contribute to other renewable technologies as well. In addition to being present in the solar cells themselves, zinc is also used as a protectant against corrosion in solar panel structures. And one must not forget the many steel structures that support the energy grid, such as transmission towers, also requiring protection against corrosion.


Some newer photovoltaic technology uses zinc oxide to achieve higher solar-cell efficiency via increased energy conversion. It is plentiful in NSW, with estimated reserves of nearly 30 million tonnes.


During the recycling of EoL silicon wafers by re-melting process, aluminum, beryllium, calcium, gadolinium, hafnium, uranium, yttrium, and zirconium can be removed from molten silicon into the slag phase by oxidation. The removal of boron which has an almost equal distribution tendency into slag and the metal phases by slag treatment might be possible if the slag is suitable. That is, the slag used must be capable of sufficiently reducing the activity coefficient of the formed boron oxide. Antimony, bismuth, carbon, lead, magnesium, phosphorus, silver, sodium, and zinc can be separated into the vapor phase by evaporation. Noted that removal of phosphorus in form of P4 (g), and removal of carbon in form of CO was considered (Supporting Information). On the other hand, the other considered 24 impurity elements have a strong tendency to remain in the molten silicon phase. These trends indicate that the removal of these impurity elements by either oxidation or by evaporation during the re-melting process is difficult. The results are in good agreement with the industrial measurement results reported by a practical MG-Si refining plant in Norway, which shows that the impurity elements of aluminum, calcium, beryllium, and magnesium, can be removed into the slag phase, while zinc, lead, and some magnesium can be removed into the gas phase [39].


(a) Schematic solvent refining process based on the binary Si-Sol. phase diagram, and (b) the elimination limit of the typical impurity elements in silicon feedstocks by solvent refining process using aluminum, copper, iron, lead, tin, and zinc as the solvent metals, illustrated by using the logarithm of the distribution ratio of impurity element between solvent metal and silicon (log(Lsolvent/silicon)).


The thermodynamic evaluations indicate that solvent metals of aluminum, copper, zinc, and iron can efficiently eliminate the typical impurity elements contained in the EoL c-Si PV panels, including the typical dopants and the metal electrodes. The solvent refining process using aluminum, copper, and zinc as solvent metals can efficiently eliminate all the considered 13 impurity elements. Elimination of calcium using iron as the solvent metal, elimination of phosphorus using lead as the solvent metal, and elimination of boron and phosphorus using tin as the solvent metal was found difficult. Considering the high likelihood of boron and phosphorus contamination as the mostly used dopants in PV panels, lead and tin are not suitable as the solvent metals for the refining of the silicon wafers during the recycling of the EoL PV panels. However, lead and tin might be wonderful solvent metals for the refining of MG-Si owing to the high distribution ratios of iron, calcium, and titanium into the solvent metals.


Like copper, aluminum plays a key role in automobile energy efficiency. For example, its light weight helps increase vehicle fuel economy. Furthermore, in 2009, the use of aluminum in vehicles offset more than 90% of greenhouse gas emissions associated with aluminum production in North America. In fact, using aluminum in cars saves 44 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions. Aluminum is even more crucial for EV production as it offsets chassis weight from relatively heavy batteries and improves range. Among several battery technologies currently in testing, one is an aluminum-air battery.8


Whether you're putting a roof on a new home, or your existing roof requires a total makeover, there are many materials available. But no matter what roof style you have, metal roofs can be an attractive option because of their longevity, minimal maintenance and energy efficiency. Material choices include steel (galvanized, galvalume or weathering), aluminum, copper, zinc and tin. Product types are vertical seam, pre-formed panels and granular coated panels. Style choices allow you to have the look of shingles, slate, tile, shakes or vertical panels. Make sure your metal roofing product is tested, labeled and listed with a testing organization such as UL, FM Approvals or Intertek to meet rigorous wind, fire and impact resistance rating requirements. Please also remember that installation can vary from geographic location, manufacturer guidelines and as a result of local building code requirements.


The demand surge would be driven, in large part, by the rapid, large-scale deployment of technologies such as electric vehicles, charging infrastructure, solar PV, wind and batteries. More copper-intensive than their conventional counterparts, demand from these areas would nearly triple by 2035. At the same time, copper demand from traditional sources not directly related to the energy transition would continue to grow.


Power adapters use the largest amounts of certain materials, including plastic, copper, tin, and zinc. By removing them from iPhone 12 packaging, we estimate that we avoided mining over 550,000 metric tons of copper, tin, and zinc ore. Using smaller, lighter packaging lets us fit up to 70% more iPhone boxes per shipping pallet, which helps further reduce our carbon footprint. Eliminating power adapters from device packaging lets us avoid more than 2 million metric tons of carbon emissions, equivalent to removing 500,000 cars from the road for a year. Leaving out those adapters was a bold change for Apple and a necessary one for our planet. 041b061a72


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